Life Cycle Assessment of Global Manganese Alloy Production
The Manganese Lifecycle Assessment (LCA) project, documented in a report published in 2014, was an unprecedented industry-led effort to better understand the environmental impacts associated with manganese alloy production. Through the International Manganese Institute (IMnI), 17 member mines and smelters from China, India, Australia, South Africa, USA and France volunteered their participation in the project in order to provide a more comprehensive and representative global picture of the industry.
The Manganese LCA Project is a cradle-to-gate study of manganese alloy production, covering the supply chain and associated indirect processes from extraction to the production of silicomanganese (SiMn), high carbon ferromanganese (HC FeMn) and low-medium carbon refined ferromanganese (Ref. FeMn) alloys. In addition to each alloy, the results are also presented as an average manganese alloy representing a combination of each production route. The study was conducted in accordance with ISO 14040 and 14044 standards and has been peer reviewed by an independent panel of LCA experts to support the quality of the study and its results. The study is accompanied by a summary report, that includes a short description of the whole project.