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Manganese Content in Steel Today

The bulk of steel production results in multi-purpose low carbon steels containing from 0.15% to 0.8% manganese. A large proportion consists of low carbon steel sheets with less than 0.3% manganese, some with even less than 0.2% for extra deep drawing qualities. High strength steels with a yield strength over 500MPa, and representing 3 to 4% of the tonnage of steel produced, contain over 1% manganese. A large number of these are high strength low alloy steels (HSLA). They are low carbon, controlled-rolled steels containing higher manganese levels (1.0% to 1.8%), taking advantage of its beneficial effect on the austenitic transformation temperature to obtain a very fine ferrite structure. Micro-alloying additions help to refine the structure or to strengthen the steel through carbide or nitride precipitates, which are evenly distributed in the ferrite matrix. These steels are widely used for oil/gas pipelines, shipbuilding and in transportation equipment in order to reduce weight.

Continuous casting of steel

Engineering steels comprise either HSLA or heat-treated grades; either pure chromium-manganese grades, or with nickel, chromium, molybdenum, vanadium additives and often 0.6 to 0.8% manganese. A few grades containing 1.0% to 1.5% manganese (as well as chromium or boron) are popular with the automobile industry.

Stainless steels which represent less than 2% of total world steel production make use of chromium and nickel. They also contain about 1% manganese. There are also manganese-stainless steels, where nickel is replaced partly or entirely by manganese, giving a manganese content of 4 to 16%. These are not yet produced in large quantities, but they could develop in the future depending on the evolution of the nickel price compared with manganese and on the marketing effort devoted to them. For example, large amounts were produced in India in the 1980’s.

High manganese (10/12%) non-magnetic steels are used for such products as retainer rings for turbo alternators and collars on oil rigs. Grades with a similar chemistry are used as cryogenic steels. A high manganese stainless “memory” steel has been developed. Any overview of high Mn steels must include Hadfield steel, named after its 19th century UK inventor and the first alloy steel ever invented. This steel contains 13% or more manganese. It has unique properties which make it indispensable for applications in which great toughness and wear resistance are required. Among these can be cited gyrating crushers, jaw-crushers, railway points and crossover components, teeth for earth-moving equipment, etc.

 
 Contents
 Introduction
 The History of Manganese
 Reserves, Production, Demand and Markets
 Manganese and Manganese Alloy Production
 Industrial and Metallurgical Applications
 Steelmaking
 Steel today
 Aluminium
 Copper
 Other Metals
 Non Metallurgical Uses
 Health, Nutrition, Agriculture and Environment
 
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