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Health, Nutrition, Agriculture and Environment

Manganese and the Environment

Manganese is an essential trace element in the metabolism of all living organisms. Nevertheless, excessive doses are toxic, and the resultant disease may arise in the pulmonary system or the central nervous system (CNS).

Manganese exposure is usually via inhalation (the risk varying with the manganese species involved and with particle size).

There is extensive literature concerning manganese toxicity and acute or chronic manganese poisoning as a result of industrial exposure to manganese oxide dust and fume.

Advanced manganese poisoning, referred to as “manganism”, can lead to extensive disablement (fortunately, such cases are rare today). Specific measures relate particularly to: reducing exposure levels and time of exposure, the use of exhaust ventilation, having workers in isolated control rooms or in air-conditioned or filtered air cabins, making available better protective equipment. Management of these various measures is clearly of great importance.

Many countries have issued restrictions concerning the permissible amount of airborne manganese in dust and fumes (threshold limit value) and these seem likely to become tighter in the future.

Medical studies into the effects of exposure to manganese are underway in various countries as well as research into mechanisms of possible toxic action within the body.

 
 Contents
 Introduction
 The History of Manganese
 Reserves, Production, Demand and Markets
 Manganese and Manganese Alloy Production
 Industrial and Metallurgical Applications
 Non Metallurgical Uses
 Health, Nutrition, Agriculture and Environment
 Environment
 Human Body
 Animal Health
 Plants and Soil
 
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