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Demand

World demand for manganese depends directly on the needs of the steel industry. There are numerous grades of steel and each requires a different amount of manganese. Unit consumption is determined by calculating the average requirement of manganese per ton of steel. Some manganese which is to be converted into steel is present in the iron (hot metal) coming either from the iron ore charge or from the addition of manganese ore to the blast furnace. This manganese is only a small part of the total requirement and it is partly oxidized during the different processes that convert the hot metal into steel. Hence most of the manganese addition is made in the steel melting shop. The majority of it is in the form of manganese ferro-alloys, but there are some cases when it can be added in the form of ore.

Part of the manganese is lost in the steelmaking process through oxidation. In the 1960's and 70's, when the oxygen-blown process progressively replaced the open hearth, Bessemer and Thomas processes, the subsequent improved manganese yield caused a decline in unit consumption. In the 1980's further improvements in steelmaking (brought about by the development of combined blowing processes) meant even better manganese yields. Today, the average unit consumption for industrialized countries is a little over 5.5 kg of manganese per ton of steel, compared to some 6.5 kg in 1980 and over 7 kg in the 1960's. Changes in steel grade chemistry have had an effect on manganese requirements. For a constant unit consumption, manganese demand follows the growth in steel production. Manganese requirements for other metallurgical applications or for non-metallurgical uses do not represent a quantity large enough to significantly affect the evolution of the overall manganese demand as a direct function of steel production growth.

 
 Contents
 Introduction
 The History of Manganese
 Reserves, Production, Demand and Markets
 Reserves
 Production
 Demand
 World Market
 Manganese and Manganese Alloy Production
 Industrial and Metallurgical Applications
 Non Metallurgical Uses
 Health, Nutrition, Agriculture and Environment
 
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