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Copper

Manganese is probably the most versatile element which can be added to copper alloys. Small additions of manganese (0.1 to 0.3%) are used to deoxidise the alloy and improve its castability and mechanical strength. Manganese has a high solid solubility in copper and in binary systems with copper and aluminium, zinc or nickel as the binary constituent. Many commercial copper alloys contain around l to 2% manganese to improve strength and hot workability. In order to reduce costs, manganese can replace part of the nickel in nickel-silver alloys.

Far higher levels of manganese content are found in some alloys for specific applications. Although most have levels of 10 to 20% there are some alloys with >50% Manganese content. These are produced in small quantities for such specific properties as damping capacity or high-thermal expansion coefficient. One such alloy, 72% Mn, 18% Cu, 10% Ni, is used for bimetallic strips in temperature control devices fitted to cars and other vehicles. Another alloy, sold under the commercial name "Manifor" is a non-magnetic high-strength alloy (60% Cu, 20% Mn, 20% Ni), used to manufacture small parts for the watchmaking industry. However, copper alloys represent only two million tons per year and hence comprise only a limited market for manganese.

 
 Contents
 Introduction
 The History of Manganese
 Reserves, Production, Demand and Markets
 Manganese and Manganese Alloy Production
 Industrial and Metallurgical Applications
 Steelmaking
 Steel today
 Aluminium
 Copper
 Other Metals
 Non Metallurgical Uses
 Health, Nutrition, Agriculture and Environment
 
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